Our pets have CB-1 receptors in the brain and CB-2 receptors in the body, their natural messenger cannabinoids are anandamide and 2-AG, anandamide’s effects can occur in either the central or peripheral nervous system. These distinct effects are mediated primarily by CB1 cannabinoid receptors in the central nervous system, and CB2 cannabinoid receptors in the periphery. The latter are mainly involved in functions of the immune system. Cannabinoid receptors were originally discovered as being sensitive to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC, commonly called THC), which is the primary psychoactive cannabinoid found in cannabis.
The discovery of anandamide came from research into CB1and CB2, as it was inevitable that a naturally occurring (endogenous) chemical would be found to affect these receptors. The 2-AG is an endocannabinoid, an endogenous agonist of the CB1 receptor. It is an ester formed from the omega-6 fatty acid arachidonic acid and glycerol. It is present at relatively high levels in the central nervous system, with cannabinoid neuromodulatory effects stimulating receptors in your pet’s brain and throughout the body. The cannabinoids in cannabis attach to those same receptors.
However, they resist letting go of those receptors so their effect is more powerful and longer-lasting. Drugs that hang on to receptors longer than the natural messengers are called an agonist. The chief agonist cannabinoids in cannabis are Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (aka THC or delta-9) and cannabidiol(aka CBD). When the effects of cannabinoids wear off, it is because they were processed (metabolized) by the pet’s liver into compounds that left through the bile and urine or were stored in the pet’s body fat.
These two endocannabinoids, or signaling molecules—known as Anandamideand 2-AG, are of great importance:
- When manufactured and released within the body, Anandamide and 2-AG ‘bind’ or ‘fit’ into the CB1 and CB2 receptors like keys fitting into locks, activating them to tackle the job of restoring a variety of aspects of health.
Phytocannabinoids are plant substances that stimulate cannabinoid receptors. These cannabinoids are abundant in the resin that is produced by glandular structures in the cannabis plant called trichomes. This resin is also rich in terpenes, which are responsible for the characteristic smell of the cannabis plant. Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC, is the most psychoactive and certainly the most known of these substances, but other cannabinoids such as cannabidiol (CBD) and cannabinol (CBN) are gaining the interest due to a variety of healing properties. Cannabinoid receptors are present throughout the body, embedded in cell membranes, and are believed to be more numerous than any other receptor system. When cannabinoid receptors are stimulated, a variety of physiologic processes begin. Researchers have identified two cannabinoid receptors: CB1, predominantly present in the nervous system, connective tissues, glands, and organs, and CB2, predominantly found in the immune system. Many tissues contain both CB1 and CB2 receptors, each linked to a different action.
Endocannabinoids are substances our bodies naturally make to stimulate CB1 and CB2 receptors. The two most well understood of these molecules areanandamide and 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG), they are synthesized on-demand from cell membrane arachidonic acid derivatives, have a local effect and short half-life before being degraded by the enzymes fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH) and monoacylglycerol lipase (MAGL).
What are Cannabinoids
Cannabinoids are naturally occurring compounds found in the cannabis sativa plant, active chemicals in cannabis that cause drug-like effects throughout the body, including the central nervous system and the immune system. They are also known as phytocannabinoids. The main active cannabinoid in cannabis is delta-9-THC. Another active cannabinoid is cannabidiol (CBD), which may relieve pain and lower inflammation without causing the “high” of delta-9-THC.
Other possible effects of cannabinoids may include:
- Anti-inflammatory activity
- Blocking cell growth
- Preventing the growth of blood vessels that supply tumors
- Antiviral activity
- Relieving muscle spasms caused by multiple sclerosis
WHAT IS CBD
CBD is short for cannabidoil- is one of at least 113 active cannabinoids identified in cannabis. It is a major phytocannabinoid, accounting for up to 40% of the plant’s extract. CBD is considered to have a wide scope of potential medical applications – due to clinical reports showing the lack of side effects, particularly a lack of psychoactivity (as is typically associated with ∆9-THC), and non-interference with several psychomotor learning and psychological functions.
CBD produces some of the same (well researched) medical benefits of THC (tetrahydrocannabinol) with out the high.
Terpenes are a large and diverse class of organic compounds, produced by a variety of plants that are the major components of resin offering their lush aroma. In 3 seconds, the body responds to the aroma of an oil. It profoundly impacts the nerves, cells, and mood via the limbic system of the brain.
Terpenes and terpenoids are the primary constituents of the essential oils of many types of plants and flowers and are derived biosynthetically from units of isoprene, the isoprene units linked together and form linear chains, as chains of isoprene units are built up, the resulting terpenes are classified sequentially by size as hemiterpenes, monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, diterpenes, sesterterpenes, triterpenes, and tetraterpenes.
Terpenes are also major constituents of Cannabis sativa plants, which contain at least 120 identified compounds. In addition to being responsible for the plant’s aroma, they can act synergistically to create an “entourage effect” magnifying the therapeutic benefits of the plant’s individual compounds.
Anandamide, also known as N-arachidonoylethanolamine or AEA